In this Lesson, we will move understand certain important concepts of Diplomacy. Tracks of Diplomacy and Tools used in diplomatic dealings will be discussed in this lesson.
Table of Contents
Tracks of Diplomacy
We often hear about Track 1 diplomacy, Track 2 diplomacy, Track 1.5 diplomacy, backchannel diplomacy etc. Let us understand what these different tracks of diplomacy mean.
Track 1 Diplomacy
It is the official engagement between the government officials of two or more nations or with multilateral organisations, international bodies etc. This is the most common form of diplomacy. You see Track 1 diplomacy all the time when our UN Representatives or Ambassadors or Ministers and even Prime Minister carry out diplomatic dealings
Track 2 Diplomacy (Backchannel Diplomacy)
In this case, diplomatic dealings are pursued through non-officials, e.g. NGOs, Businessmen, etc. Sometimes you see the business leaders, religious gurus, Nobel laureates or other prominent personalities entering into discussion with another country’s unofficial representatives. Since it is unofficial, there are many advantages of holding such talks.
Track 1.5 Diplomacy
This term is used when both officials and non-officials are engaged in a diplomatic negotiation. Often foreign leaders travel with businessmen. You may have seen American business tycoons travel with USA President or POSCO owner travel with South Korean President to foreign nations for diplomatic dealings.
Track 3 Diplomacy
This relates to people-to-people contact. It is one of the most important confidence building measures. This generally happens at the low level and involves. It is important to note that in Track 3 diplomacy there is no official intervention or guidance. You may remember ‘Aman Ki Asha‘ initiative to increase people-to-people contact between India and Pakistan in this regard.
Track 4 Diplomacy (Multitrack Diplomacy)
It is a holistic approach to diplomacy. It involves multiple channels and multiple stakeholders to pursue the diplomatic goal. This approach is particularly useful in long pending conflicts and unresolved issues between two countries.
Tools Used In Diplomacy
- Political Tools: interaction with the embassies and the high commissionerates of other countries and vice versa
- Security Tools: Cooperation in defence sector, counter-terrorism operations, intelligence sharing, nuclear energy technology and space technology etc.
- Commercial Tools: Trade deals, investment, economic relations, free trade agreements, line of credit, soft loans, etc.
- Cultural Tools: Cultural tools in diplomacy involve cultural exchanges and cooperation in the fields of art, literature, education, films, etc.
We have discussed some important concepts of diplomacy in this lesson. In the next lesson of India’s Foreign Policy, we will discuss India’s Neighbourhood Policy followed by its relation with all the neighbouring countries.